Humans are tropical animals. We are adapted to a warm climate. When exposed to cold, the body tries
to stay warm. If the body is cooling off, circulation decreases in the arms, legs, ears, and nose so that
the rest of the core body can stay warm. When temperatures are below freezing, ice may form in these
areas with less circulation.
• Nonfreezing cold injuries are also caused by cooling of the skin. In immersion injuries, the nerves and blood vessels are damaged after exposure to cold, wet conditions at or above freezing temperatures.